Behavior interventions for situations where the student can do the correct behavior, but something needs to change to make that happen
- Full Intervention Brief: Behavioral Contracts
CW-FIT is a behavioral intervention designed to explicitly teach and reinforce appropriate social behaviors through the use of a game like activity that can be implemented within the general education classroom setting. This intervention can be strategically implemented during “problem” times of the day to decrease problem behavior. CW- FIT incorporates multiple research-based behavioral strategies including direct instruction of skills, self and peer management, extinction by removing reinforcement (i.e. withholding attention when problem behaviors occur) as well as differential reinforcement of alternative.
Children will continue to engage in problem behaviors that are reinforced. Therefore, it is important to minimize reinforcement for disruptive behavior to reduce disruptive behavior. Unfortunately, simply removing reinforcement often results in an “extinction burst”. DR interventions have been developed to concurrently remove or reduce reinforcement for the problem behavior while reinforcing a functionally similar replacement behavior. Thus, the problem behavior diminishes while the child is provided with an alternative (more acceptable) means to access the desired reinforcement. There have been many empirical demonstrations of the effectiveness of differential reinforcement (DR) interventions (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2008).
- Full Intervention Brief: Differential Reinforcement of an Incompatible or Alternative Behavior
- New Modeling Video: Differential Reinforcement video
Motivating students to do certain tasks may be difficult. The mystery component in this intervention is based on offering an unknown reinforcer. The mystery will engage students in the academic task, even when the task is difficult.
- Full Intervention Brief: Mystery Motivator
- Modeling Videos: Video 1, Video 2, Video 3
- Evidence Brief: Mystery Motivator EB
Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is a powerful method to reduce problematic behavior. NCR involves giving the student access to a reinforcer frequently enough that they are no longer motivated to exhibit disruptive behavior to obtain that same reinforcer. A classic example of NCR is a teacher placing a child on his or her lap during group instruction such that the child has no motivation to seek the teacher’s attention while the teacher is conducting story time with the class. There have been many empirical demonstrations of the effectiveness of the NCR interventions with a comprehensive demonstration of the evidence base by Carr, Severtson, and Lepper in 2008.
- Full Intervention Brief: Noncontingent Reinforcement
This intervention has been shown to be successful in multiple classroom settings such as during the use of direct instruction, classwide peer tutoring, and computer-assisted instruction. An OTR is described as a teacher behavior (question, prompt, cue) that invites or solicits an individual student response or a unison response. These student responses can be verbal (i.e. answering a question), gestured (i.e. giving a thumbs up or thumbs down, response cards), or written (i.e. providing answer on a whiteboard). After the student(s) have responded the teacher then provides specific feedback on the student’s responses.
Students receive immediate corrective feedback after the information has been provided during whole group instruction. Students respond to questions by holding up cards, rather than waiting to be called on individually.
Full Intervention Brief: Response Cards
Evidence Brief: Response Cards EB
Although there is a wealth of existing behavioral interventions, many rely solely on teacher implementation, require significant attention, and may be difficult to apply consistently (Briesch & Chafouleas, 2009). In contrast, self-management interventions make students responsible for tracking their own behavior. At the core of self-management, is self-monitoring where students are provide with the definitions of target behaviors and prompted to record their performance during instruction. By becoming aware of their own behavior, students are given the opportunity to recruit naturally occurring reinforcers. Several components are often used in addition to self-monitoring including goal setting, self-charting, and self-evaluation paired with reinforcement (Briesch & Chafouleas, 2009).
- Full Intervention Brief: Self-Management
SCI is a social competence intervention developed by Stichter et al. (2010) that combines both cognitive-behavioral and applied behavior analysis principals within a group-based structure. Specifically, the intervention is designed to enhance the social competence needs of elementary, middle school, and high school youth with social skill deficits. Each version provides structure, consistency, and scaffolding for three specific age ranges (Elementary: 6-10; Adolescent: 11-14; High School: 14-18) to assist in skill acquisition and maintenance. It is best used for the HFA population, and others who exhibit similar social skills deficits. This intervention is structured with scaffolded instruction in the following targeted social skills units: recognizing facial expressions, sharing ideas using the appropriate speaker and listener skills, turn taking in conversations, understanding feelings and emotions, and problem solving.
EBI Brief for the Social Competence Intervention (SCI)
SCI Website with information and resources: education.missouri.edu/sci