School Improvement Surveys

School Improvement Surveys

School Improvement Surveys

  1. AUDIT OF PRINCIPAL EFFECTIVENESS (APE)
    The Audit of Principal Effectiveness (APE) provides information about the effectiveness of principals in dealing with personnel inside and outside the school setting, nurturing school climate, and serves as the educational leader of the school.  The domains and factors of the APE are listed below.

    Domain: Organizational Development

    The domain of Organizational Development provides insight about the ability of the principal to work with personnel inside and outside the school setting to establish processes and relationships that effectively promote growth and change of the organization as a whole. The specific statistical factors for Organizational Development are defined below (27 items).

    Factors:

    • Organizational Direction: The principal provides direction for the school through work with faculty to develop goals, establish expectations, and promote appropriate change. (7 items)
    • Organizational Linkage: The principal promotes positive working relationships between the school, the community the school serves, and other educators and agencies that work with the school. (11 items)
    • Organizational Procedures. The principal utilizes effective procedures for problem-solving, decision-making, and change. (9 items)

    Domain: Organizational Environment

    The domain of Organizational Environment provides insight about the ability of the principal to nurture the on-going climate of the school through development of positive interpersonal relationships among members of the organization and effective day-by-day operational procedures for the school. The specific statistical factors for Organizational Environment are defined below. (37 items)

    Factors:

    • Teacher Relations: The principal develops effective working relationships with staff through appropriate communication skills, sensitivity to needs, appropriate support, and reinforcement. (13 items)
    • Student Relations: The principal develops effective working relationships with students through appropriate communication skills, encouragement, support, and high visibility. (8 items)
    • Interactive Processes: The principal organizes tasks and personnel for the effective day-by-day management of the school, including providing appropriate information to staff and students, developing appropriate rules and procedures, and setting the overall tone for discipline in the school. (9 items)
    • Affective Processes: The principal encourages the expression of feelings, opinions, pride, and loyalty through team management, sensitivity, humor, and personal example. (7 items)

    Domain: Educational Program

    The domain of Educational Program provides insight about the ability of the principal to serve as the educational leader of the school through active involvement in instructional leadership and curriculum development. The specific statistical factors for Educational Program are defined below. (15 items)

    Factors:

    • Instructional Improvement: The principal influences positively the instructional skills present in the school through clinical supervision, knowledge of effective schooling, and commitment to quality instruction. (8 items)
    • Curriculum Improvement: The principal promotes an articulated, outcome-based curriculum through diagnosis of student needs and systematic program review and change. (7 items)
    Click here to see a copy of the APE

    Contact: Dr. Jerry Valentine: Address: 211 Hill Hall, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211: ValentineJ@missouri.edu

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  2. INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES SURVEY (IPS)
    The Instructional Practices Survey (IPS) provides information about the teaching practices in the middle level school. When the instrument is used in conjunction with the Instructional Practices Inventory, the staff members have the opportunity to study their perceptions of their instructional practices (IPS) and associate those data with the observation data of their practices (IPI). The scales of the IPS are listed below.

    Scales:

    • Teaching Role: Describes the teachers' job assignments, including core, non-core, special education and the type of instructional structures the teachers work in, such as interdisciplinary teams.
    • Planning Strategies: Describes the frequency and types of processes the teachers use to prepare for instruction. Included are questions about selection of content, instructional methods, accommodation of individual needs, and cooperative and integrative instruction.
    • Instructional Strategies: Describes the frequency and types of processes the teachers use to implement the instructional plan. Included are questions about monitoring understanding, mobility among students, stimulating higher-order thinking, creating social interaction, varying group sizes, and developing self-responsibility.
    • Assessment Practices: Describes the frequency and type of assessment strategies used by the teachers. Included are questions about various forms of assessment and the processes used to ensure that students master the desired learning objectives.
    • Parent Relationships: Describes the frequency and type of contacts teachers have with students' parents. Included are questions about who (teacher or parent) initiates the contacts, where they occur, and the reasons for the contacts.
    • Curriculum Development: Describes the processes used by teachers to identify curricular goals, specific content, and the associated learning activities. Of particular value is the insight about the degree to which students and colleagues are involved in the determination of the curriculum and related instructional objectives.
    Click here to see a copy of the IPS

    Contact: Dr. Jerry Valentine: 211 Hill Hall, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211: ValentineJ@missouri.edu

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  3. ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE-MIDDLE LEVEL (OCDQ-ML)
    The Organizational Climate Descriptions Questionnaire-Middle Level (OCDQ-ML) was revised by Hoy and Sabo for specific use at the middle level. The instrument provides information about the climate in middle level schools. The school's climate can be characterized as one of four types of climates: Open, Engaged, Disengaged, and Closed. To obtain the data necessary to characterize the climate, three sources of data about principal behavior and three sources of data about teacher behavior are determined. The three principal behavior scales determine the Principal Openness score that is plotted on the grid. The three teacher behavior scales determine the Teacher Openness score that is also plotted on the grid. The point at which those two Openness scores meet on the grid determines the quadrant (type) of school climate. The subscales of the OCDQ-ML are listed below.

    Scale: Principal Behavior

    The Principal behavior scale is marked by a helpful concern for the ideas of teachers, constructive support, freedom, and encouragement for teachers to experiment and act independently, and structuring the routine aspects of the job so that they do not interfere with teaching. 

    Subscales:

    • Supportive Behavior: Directed toward both the social needs and task achievement of faculty. The principal is helpful and genuinely concerned with teachers.
    • Directive Behavior: Rigid, domineering behavior. The principal maintains close and constant monitoring over virtually all aspects of teacher behavior in the school.
    • Restrictive Behavior: Hinders rather than facilitates teacher work. The principal burdens teachers with paperwork, committee requirements and other demands that interfere with their teaching responsibility.


    Scale: Teacher Behavior

    The Teacher behavior scale refers to teachers' interactions that are meaningful and tolerant, that help students succeed, are professional, accepting, and mutually respectful.

    Subscales

    • Collegial Behavior: Supports open and professional interactions among teachers. Teachers like, respect, and help one another both professionally and personally.
    • Committed Behavior: Directed toward helping students develop both socially and intellectually. Teachers work extra hard to ensure student success in school.
    • Disengaged Behavior: Signifies a lack of meaning and focus in professional activities. Teachers are simply putting in their time; in fact, they are critical and not accepting of their colleagues.

    The four climate types measured by the OCDQ-ML are:

    • Open Climate
    • Engaged Climate features teachers that are open with each other, cohesive, committed, supportive, and engaged despite weak leadership.
    • Disengaged Climate features a principal that is open in relationships with faculty, is supportive, flexible, and non-controlling. However, the faculty is divided, intolerant, uncommitted, and guarded in interactions with each other.
    • Closed Climate features a non-supportive, controlling principal along with a divided, apathetic faculty. 

     
    Click here to see a copy of the OCDQ-ML

    Contact:  Dr. Wayne Hoy: 116 Ramseyer Hall, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210: Hoy.16@osu.edu

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  4. ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH INVENTORY-MIDDLE LEVEL (OHI-ML)
    The Organizational Health Inventory-Middle Level (OHI-ML) was revised by Hoy and Sabo for specific use at the middle level. The instrument provides information on six factors and supports interpretation of those six factors against a middle level norm by transfer of the school scores to Z-scores (average of 500). The Z-scores can be plotted for easy interpretation by faculty. The factors of the OHI-ML are listed below.

    Factors:

    • Institutional Integrity: Measures the degree to which the school can cope with its environment in a way that maintains the educational integrity of its programs.
    • Collegial Leadership: Measures principal behavior that is friendly, supportive, open, and guided by norms of equality.
    • Principal Influence: Measures the principal's ability to influence the actions of superiors.
    • Resource Support: Measures the extent to which classroom supplies and instructional materials are readily available, even extra materials are supplied if requested.
    • Teacher Affiliation: Measures the sense of friendliness and strong association with the school. Teachers feel good about each other, their job, and their students.
    • Academic Emphasis: Measures the extent to which the school is driven by academic excellence. High but achievable goals are set for students.
    Click here to see a copy of the OHI-ML

    Contact: Dr. Wayne Hoy: 116 Ramseyer Hall, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210: Hoy.16@osu.edu

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  5. PRINCIPAL LEADERSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE (PLQ)
    The Principal Leadership Questionnaire (PLQ) provides information about perceptions individuals have concerning a principal’s transformational leadership behaviors. The factors of the PLQ are listed below.

    Factors:

    • Identifying and articulating a vision: behavior on the part of the principal aimed at identifying new opportunities for his or her school staff members and developing, articulating, and inspiring others with his or her vision of the future.  This factor has a reported reliability coefficient (Chronbach's alpha of .88)
    • Providing an appropriate model: behavior on the part of the principal that sets an example for the school staff members to follow consistent with the values the principal espouses.  This factor has a reported reliability coefficient (Chronbach's alpha of .86)
    • Fostering the acceptance of group goals: behavior on the part of the principal aimed at promoting cooperation among school staff members and assisting them to work together toward common goals.  This factor has a reported reliability coefficient (Chronbach's alpha of .80)
    • Providing individualized support: behavior on the part of the principal that indicates respect for school staff members and concern about their personal feelings and needs.  This factor has a reported reliability coefficient (Chronbach's alpha of .82)
    • Providing intellectual stimulation: behavior on the part of the principal that challenges school staff members to reexamine some of the assumptions about their work and rethink how it can be performed.  This factor has a reported reliability coefficient (Chronbach's alpha of .77)
    • Holding high performance expectations: behavior that demonstrates the principal's expectations for excellence, quality, and high performance on the part of the school staff.  This factor has a reported reliability coefficient (Chronbach's alpha of .73)

    Click here to see a copy of the PLQ

    Contact: Dr. Kenneth Arthur Leithwood: 252 Bloor Street West, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1V6: kleithwood@oise.utoronto.ca

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  6. SCHOOL CULTURE SURVEY (SCS)

    The School Culture Survey (SCS) provides information about the shared values/beliefs, the patterns of behavior, and the relationships in the school. Each factor measures a unique aspect of the school's collaborative culture. The factors of the SCS are listed below.

    Factors:

    • Collaborative Leadership: Measures the degree to which school leaders establish and maintain collaborative relationships with school staff. The leader value teachers' ideas, seek input, engage staff in decision-making, and trust the professional judgment of the staff. Leaders support and reward risk-taking and innovative ideas designed to improve education for the students. Leaders reinforce the sharing of ideas and effective practices among all staff.
    • Teacher Collaboration: Measures the degree to which teachers engage in constructive dialogue that furthers the educational vision of the school. Teachers across the school plan together, observe and discuss teaching practices, evaluate programs, and develop an awareness of the practices and programs of other teachers.
    • Professional Development: Measures the degree to which teachers value continuous personal development and school-wide improvement. Teachers seek ideas from seminars, colleagues, organizations, and other professional sources to maintain current knowledge, particularly current knowledge about instructional practices.
    • Collegial Support: Measures the degree to which teachers work together effectively. Teachers trust each other, value each other's ideas, and assist each other as they work to accomplish the tasks of the school organization.
    • Unity of Purpose: Measures the degree to which teachers work toward a common mission for the school. Teachers understand, support, and perform in accordance with that mission.
    • Learning Partnership: Measures the degree to which teachers, parents, and students work together for the common good of the student. Parents and teachers share common expectations and communicate frequently about student performance. Parents trust teachers and students generally accept responsibility for their schooling.

    Click here to see a copy of the SCS

    Contact: Dr. Jerry Valentine: 211 Hill Hall, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211: ValentineJ@missouri.edu

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  7. SCHOOL PARTICIPANT EMPOWERMENT SCALE (SPES)
    The School Participant Empowerment Scale (SPES) provides information about the degree to which conditions in the school foster teacher empowerment. The factors of the SPES are listed below.

    Factors:

    • Decision Making: Measures the degree to which teachers perceive they are involved in decision making about issues of critical concern to them and their work, coupled with the belief that their involvement is genuine and their opinions are critical to the outcome of the decisions.
    • Professional Growth: Measures the degree to which teachers perceive the school in which they work provides them with opportunities to grow and develop professionally, to learn continuously, and to expand their own skills through the work life of the school.
    • Status: Measures the degree to which teachers perceive they have professional respect and admiration from their colleagues and the degree to which others respect their expertise and knowledge.
    • Self-Efficacy: Measures the degree to which teachers perceive they have the skills and ability to help students learn, are competent in building effective programs for students, and have command of the subject matter and teaching skills.
    • Autonomy: Measures the degree to which teachers believe they can control certain aspects of their work life.
    • Impact: Measures the degree to which teachers perceive they have an effect and influence on school life and this impact is acknowledged.

    Click here to see a copy of the SPES

    Contact: Dr. Paula Short: 1415 Murfreesboro Road, Suite 324, Tennessee Board of Regents, Nashville, TN 37217-2833: Paula.Short@tbr.edu

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  8. STAFF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (SAQ)
    The Staff Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ) provides information about nine variables of school effectiveness. The University of Washington and the Seattle Public Schools cooperatively developed the instrument. The factors of the SAQ are listed below.

    Factors:

    • Strong Leadership: Measures the level of strategic interaction between the principal and teachers in areas of mobilizing resources, communicating, serving as instructional resource, and being a visible presence.
    • Dedicated Staff: Measures the degree to which the school staff is committed to exercising a professional role within the school.
    • High Expectations: Measures the degree to which there exists within the school a climate of high expectations, characterized by a tone of respect for teachers, students, parents, and community.
    • Frequent Monitoring: Measures the degree to which school staff continually monitor both student progress toward school achievement and teacher effectiveness in meeting those goals.
    • Early Identification: Measures the degree to which school staff purposefully identify, in a timely manner, students with special needs.
    • Positive Learning Climate: Measures the degree to which school staff members provide students with a structured, purposeful, and productive environment.
    • Curriculum Continuity: Measures the degree to which students' learning experiences are effectively articulated, both vertically and horizontally, throughout the curriculum.
    • Multicultural Education: Measures the degree to which school programs and environment support and maintain diversity.
    • Sex Equity: Measures the degree to which school staff and programs address issues of gender equity.

    Click here to see a copy of the SAQ


    Contact: Jerry Bamburg: Box 353600, Center for Effective Schools, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-3600: jbamburg@u.washington.edu

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  9. STUDENT SURVEY
    The Middle Level Student Survey provides information about the students in the middle level school. The scales of the Student Survey are listed below.

    Scales:

    • Student Participation in School Activities: Describes the degree to which students have participated in school activities, either as a member or an officer, in the present school year.
    • Student Participation in Non-school Activities: Describes the degree to which students have participated in activities sponsored by groups other than the school, either as a member or an officer, in the present school year.
    • Student Self Concept: Measures how students view themselves academically.
    • Student Self Esteem: Measures how students feel about themselves academically.
    • Global Self Esteem: Measures how students feel about themselves.
    • Academic Self-Efficacy: Measures how students feel about their ability to succeed academically.
    • Student Self-Standards: Measures the standards that students have for themselves.
    • Individual Student Behavior: A self-report of students' behavior during the current school year.
    • School-wide Student Behavior: Describes the degree to which students perceive behaviors to be a problem in the school.
    • People in Students' Lives—Friends: Measures how students feel about relationships with their friends.
    • Parent Participation describes students' perceptions of their parents/guardians participation with school this year.
    • Demographic Variables: Include items designed to identify basic factors such as parent educational level, SES, gender, race/ethnicity, grade level, self-reported grades and attendance.
    • Home Study Conditions: Describes conditions in the students' homes that support or detract from academics.
    • Parent-Student Interaction: Describes the degree to which parents and students talk about school.
    • Student Homework: Describes how much time students report spending on homework.

    Click here to see a copy of the Student Survey


    Contact: Dr. Jerry Valentine: 211 Hill Hall, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211: ValentineJ@missouri.edu

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